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Transformers ist eine US-amerikanische Zeichentrickserie, die auf der Spielzeugserie Transformers des US-amerikanischen Herstellers Hasbro basiert und ursprünglich als Werbeträger für diese konzipiert war. Transformers (Originaltitel: The Transformers; heute im Rückblick auch unter dem Namen Transformers: Generation One bzw. Generation 1 bekannt) ist eine. Transformers – Der Kampf um Cybertron (im Original The Transformers: The Movie) ist ein US-amerikanischer Zeichentrickfilm aus dem Jahr , der auf. Online-Shopping mit großer Auswahl im DVD & Blu-ray Shop. Zeichentrickserie (Transformers; –). Die Transformers sind intelligente, fühlende Maschinen vom Planeten Cybertron und in zwei feindliche Lager.

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Online-Shopping mit großer Auswahl im DVD & Blu-ray Shop. Transformers ist eine US-amerikanische Zeichentrickserie, die auf der Spielzeugserie Transformers des US-amerikanischen Herstellers Hasbro basiert und ursprünglich als Werbeträger für diese konzipiert war. Bumblebee ist ein echter Kämpfer und war früher Scout der Autobots. Er ist ein treuer Freund von Optimus Prime. Er kann sich in einen gelben Sportwagen mit. transformers zeichentrick

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Transformers G1 Der Anfang (German) A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting sub noblesse awakening ger transformer leak oil. All issues have so far been written by Simon Furman, except source the issue for Kup which was written by artist Nick Roche. Jan The series was collected as a trade paperback in January Retrieved Main article: Transformers: Micromasters. Here, Cobra had discovered and awakened the Decepticons, reformatting their vehicle modes click to see more s era war vehicles and weapons.

Transformers Zeichentrick - Transformers – Community

Dem philippinischen Künstler Floro Dery, der bereits an der Entwicklung der Animationsdesigns der Figuren aus der Serie beteiligt war, fiel die Aufgabe zu, die neuen Figuren zu entwickeln, aus denen Hasbro und Takara dann neue Spielzeugfiguren herstellen konnten [1] — zu jener Zeit ein absolutes Novum. Roger C. Aufgrund der langen Vorproduktion des Films kam es zu zahlreichen inhaltlichen Konflikten mit der Zeichentrickserie. Der Film wurde am 8. Die Zeichentrickserie wurde ins Japanische synchronisiert, und die ersten beiden Staffeln wurden erstmals vom 1. Filmation am Der kommerzielle Misserfolg von Transformers — Der Go here um Cybertron hatte unter anderem auch zur Folge, dass ein weiterer Zeichentrickfilm, der auf einer Hasbro-Spielzeugserie pandemic – erreger, namentlich G. The Transformers. The Transformers: The Movie. Nun versuche ich seit langem die Staffel zu finden, wo die Transformers von Menschen gesteuert wurden. Neil Ross. Der Kinofilm wurde in Japan ursprünglich nicht gezeigt und erschien erst auf Video und Laserdisc. Https://sanfrandisco.se/stream-kostenlos-filme/bachelorette-vorschau.php die Animation war das japanische Continue reading Toei Animation zuständig. Verbotene liebe Transformers; —

By Ohm's law and ideal transformer identity:. An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled.

Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductances and zero net magnetomotive force i.

A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding.

This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force EMF, voltage in the secondary winding due to electromagnetic induction and the secondary current so produced creates a flux equal and opposite to that produced by the primary winding, in accordance with Lenz's law.

The windings are wound around a core of infinitely high magnetic permeability so that all of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings.

With a voltage source connected to the primary winding and a load connected to the secondary winding, the transformer currents flow in the indicated directions and the core magnetomotive force cancels to zero.

According to Faraday's law , since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings in an ideal transformer, a voltage is induced in each winding proportional to its number of windings.

The transformer winding voltage ratio is directly proportional to the winding turns ratio. The ideal transformer identity shown in eq.

The load impedance referred to the primary circuit is equal to the turns ratio squared times the secondary circuit load impedance.

Three kinds of parasitic capacitance are usually considered and the closed-loop equations are provided [10]. However, the capacitance effect can be measured by comparing open-circuit inductance, i.

The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary winding links all the turns of every winding, including itself.

In practice, some flux traverses paths that take it outside the windings. It is not directly a power loss, but results in inferior voltage regulation , causing the secondary voltage not to be directly proportional to the primary voltage, particularly under heavy load.

In some applications increased leakage is desired, and long magnetic paths, air gaps, or magnetic bypass shunts may deliberately be introduced in a transformer design to limit the short-circuit current it will supply.

Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, especially audio-frequency transformers in circuits that have a DC component flowing in the windings.

Knowledge of leakage inductance is also useful when transformers are operated in parallel. However, the impedance tolerances of commercial transformers are significant.

Referring to the diagram, a practical transformer's physical behavior may be represented by an equivalent circuit model, which can incorporate an ideal transformer.

Winding joule losses and leakage reactances are represented by the following series loop impedances of the model:.

R C and X M are collectively termed the magnetizing branch of the model. Core losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core and are proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency.

Magnetizing current is in phase with the flux, the relationship between the two being non-linear due to saturation effects.

However, all impedances of the equivalent circuit shown are by definition linear and such non-linearity effects are not typically reflected in transformer equivalent circuits.

With open-circuited secondary winding, magnetizing branch current I 0 equals transformer no-load current. The resulting model, though sometimes termed 'exact' equivalent circuit based on linearity assumptions, retains a number of approximations.

This introduces error but allows combination of primary and referred secondary resistances and reactances by simple summation as two series impedances.

Transformer equivalent circuit impedance and transformer ratio parameters can be derived from the following tests: open-circuit test , short-circuit test , winding resistance test, and transformer ratio test.

A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings.

Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals.

This may be in the form of a phasor diagram, or using an alpha-numeric code to show the type of internal connection wye or delta for each winding.

The EMF of a transformer at a given flux increases with frequency. However, properties such as core loss and conductor skin effect also increase with frequency.

Consequently, the transformers used to step-down the high overhead line voltages were much larger and heavier for the same power rating than those required for the higher frequencies.

Operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetizing current.

At a lower frequency, the magnetizing current will increase. Operation of a large transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical.

Transformers may require protective relays to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher than rated frequency. One example is in traction transformers used for electric multiple unit and high-speed train service operating across regions with different electrical standards.

At much higher frequencies the transformer core size required drops dramatically: a physically small transformer can handle power levels that would require a massive iron core at mains frequency.

The development of switching power semiconductor devices made switch-mode power supplies viable, to generate a high frequency, then change the voltage level with a small transformer.

Large power transformers are vulnerable to insulation failure due to transient voltages with high-frequency components, such as caused in switching or by lightning.

Transformer energy losses are dominated by winding and core losses. Transformers' efficiency tends to improve with increasing transformer capacity.

The efficiency of typical distribution transformers is between about 98 and 99 percent. As transformer losses vary with load, it is often useful to tabulate no-load loss, full-load loss, half-load loss, and so on.

Hysteresis and eddy current losses are constant at all load levels and dominate at no load, while winding loss increases as load increases.

The no-load loss can be significant, so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply.

Designing energy efficient transformers for lower loss requires a larger core, good-quality silicon steel , or even amorphous steel for the core and thicker wire, increasing initial cost.

The choice of construction represents a trade-off between initial cost and operating cost. Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'.

When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form.

At higher voltage and power ratings, shell form transformers tend to be more prevalent. Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel.

Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a thin non-conducting layer of insulation. The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so reduce their magnitude.

Thinner laminations reduce losses, [27] but are more laborious and expensive to construct. One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces, leading to its name of 'E-I transformer'.

The cut-core or C-core type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the layers together.

It is then cut in two, forming two C shapes, and the core assembled by binding the two C halves together with a steel strap.

A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed.

When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied AC waveform.

On transformers connected to long, overhead power transmission lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices.

Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss high-permeability silicon steel or amorphous non-crystalline metal alloy.

The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load.

Powdered iron cores are used in circuits such as switch-mode power supplies that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz.

These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. For frequencies extending beyond the VHF band , cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials called ferrites are common.

Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which, depending on operating frequency, is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil, powdered iron, or ferrite.

The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an E-I core. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core.

This minimizes the length of wire needed and provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference.

Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a similar power level. Other advantages compared to E-I types, include smaller size about half , lower weight about half , less mechanical hum making them superior in audio amplifiers , lower exterior magnetic field about one tenth , low off-load losses making them more efficient in standby circuits , single-bolt mounting, and greater choice of shapes.

The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited power capacity see Classification parameters below. Because of the lack of a residual gap in the magnetic path, toroidal transformers also tend to exhibit higher inrush current, compared to laminated E-I types.

Ferrite toroidal cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight of inductive components.

A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher labor cost of winding. This is because it is necessary to pass the entire length of a coil winding through the core aperture each time a single turn is added to the coil.

As a consequence, toroidal transformers rated more than a few kVA are uncommon. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open, then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings.

A transformer can be produced by placing the windings near each other, an arrangement termed an "air-core" transformer.

An air-core transformer eliminates loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Air-core transformers are unsuitable for use in power distribution, [12] but are frequently employed in radio-frequency applications.

The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn.

For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire.

Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated paper and blocks of pressboard.

High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz often have windings made of braided Litz wire to minimize the skin-effect and proximity effect losses.

The transposition equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor, and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself.

The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size, aiding manufacture. The windings of signal transformers minimize leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response.

Coils are split into sections, and those sections interleaved between the sections of the other winding. Power-frequency transformers may have taps at intermediate points on the winding, usually on the higher voltage winding side, for voltage adjustment.

Taps may be manually reconnected, or a manual or automatic switch may be provided for changing taps. Automatic on-load tap changers are used in electric power transmission or distribution, on equipment such as arc furnace transformers, or for automatic voltage regulators for sensitive loads.

Audio-frequency transformers, used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers, have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker.

A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull circuit.

Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation.

As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these.

The mineral oil and paper insulation system has been extensively studied and used for more than years. Building regulations in many jurisdictions require indoor liquid-filled transformers to either use dielectric fluids that are less flammable than oil, or be installed in fire-resistant rooms.

The tank of liquid filled transformers often has radiators through which the liquid coolant circulates by natural convection or fins.

Some large transformers employ electric fans for forced-air cooling, pumps for forced-liquid cooling, or have heat exchangers for water-cooling.

Polychlorinated biphenyls have properties that once favored their use as a dielectric coolant , though concerns over their environmental persistence led to a widespread ban on their use.

Some transformers, instead of being liquid-filled, have their windings enclosed in sealed, pressurized tanks and cooled by nitrogen or sulfur hexafluoride gas.

Insulation must be provided between the individual turns of the windings, between the windings, between windings and core, and at the terminals of the winding.

Inter-turn insulation of small transformers may be a layer of insulating varnish on the wire. Layer of paper or polymer films may be inserted between layers of windings, and between primary and secondary windings.

A transformer may be coated or dipped in a polymer resin to improve the strength of windings and protect them from moisture or corrosion. The resin may be impregnated into the winding insulation using combinations of vacuum and pressure during the coating process, eliminating all air voids in the winding.

In the limit, the entire coil may be placed in a mold, and resin cast around it as a solid block, encapsulating the windings. Large oil-filled power transformers use windings wrapped with insulating paper, which is impregnated with oil during assembly of the transformer.

Oil-filled transformers use highly refined mineral oil to insulate and cool the windings and core. Construction of oil-filled transformers requires that the insulation covering the windings be thoroughly dried of residual moisture before the oil is introduced.

Drying may be done by circulating hot air around the core, by circulating externally heated transformer oil, or by vapor-phase drying VPD where an evaporated solvent transfers heat by condensation on the coil and core.

For small transformers, resistance heating by injection of current into the windings is used. Larger transformers are provided with high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain.

A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.

Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions.

In electric power transmission , transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires.

This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply.

Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers.

Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground , such as between external cables and internal circuits.

Isolation transformers prevent leakage of current into the secondary circuit and are used in medical equipment and at construction sites.

Resonant transformers are used for coupling between stages of radio receivers, or in high-voltage Tesla coils. Electromagnetic induction , the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in , Joseph Henry in , and others.

Faraday performed early experiments on induction between coils of wire, including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring, thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer.

The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil , invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College , Ireland in Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries.

Since batteries produce direct current DC rather than AC, induction coils relied upon vibrating electrical contacts that regularly interrupted the current in the primary to create the flux changes necessary for induction.

Between the s and the s, efforts to build better induction coils, mostly by trial and error, slowly revealed the basic principles of transformers.

By the s, efficient generators producing alternating current AC were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter.

In , Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC.

They are befriended by Buster Witwicky. His brother Spike eventually joins the cause as Autobot leader when he became the head of commander Fortress Maximus.

There occurs a considerable amount of fractioning and in-fighting in both the Autobots and Decepticons. However, the series climax occurs when both sides, Autobots and Decepticons, form an uneasy peace to defend Cybertron from Unicron.

A few of the early issues were reprinted by Marvel in a digest sized magazine called The Transformers Comics Magazine that ran 10 issues from to In latter years, when various other companies were able to obtain the license for the Transformers , they were able to gain access to the Marvel series and reprinted a lot of the issues.

From to , Titan Books reprinted numerous Marvel issues in a series of 14 trade paperbacks. K market. IDW Publishing the current rights holders to the Transformers comic property reprinted numerous Marvel issues as well, as part of the Transformers: Generations series that ran 12 issues [7] and a collected trade paperback from to This six volume series started getting published in June This deluxe book celebrated the 30th anniversary of The Transformers franchise, and as such, many of the original Marvel books were reprinted.

The sister title in the UK, this series ran for issues, [17] as well as spawning 7 annuals and 28 specials.

At the start, it had a more serious science fiction approach. Because of the weekly approach, the UK comic was able to flesh out characters and ideas more; in the US comic, the Aerialbots and Stunticons are first shown having just been built and being given life by the Creation Matrix program, whereas the UK comic fleshed it out more and showed the two teams as being created out of new technology created by Shockwave after scanning Buster Witwicky while he had the Matrix downloaded into his brain.

Furman also tried to maintain continuity with The Transformers: The Movie , and wrote several stories set in the future after the movie's ending, as well as bringing characters from the future i.

Galvatron into the present day. Due to his epic and mythological approach, he was highly praised and succeeded Bob Budiansky on the US title at issue Numerous issues and stories from this series would eventually be reprinted.

In latter years reprints were done courtesy of Titan Books who published reprints in 14 volumes. A three-issue mini-series adaptation of the feature film , [21] with no continuity ties to the regular comic series.

Differences to the animated feature include the original designs for the Autobot Matrix of Leadership and Ultra Magnus' original death at the hand of Scourge and his Sweeps.

A four-issue limited series [22] in the style of Marvel Universe and G. Joe: Order of Battle , featuring lengthy bios of nearly all of the Transformers of the period.

Most of the text was the same as the tech specs found on the toy boxes, only much more expanded. The first three issues as well as the first portion of the fourth contained all of the first, second and third year Transformers.

The latter half of the fourth issue dealt with characters new to The Transformers: The Movie , including characters that were not made as toys at the time.

The series was collected as a trade paperback in July A four-issue limited series written by Michael Higgins, [24] G.

Joe and the Transformers teamed-up the Transformers with the other popular Hasbro property of the s, G. The Joes, the Autobots , and Cobra after being betrayed by the Decepticons must join forces to stop the Decepticons from activating an energy drill device to suck up energy from the Earth's core, which would destroy the planet in the process.

The story was hampered by continuity issues though the storyline was only referred to in the pages of the Transformers comics, as G.

Joe writer Larry Hama opted to ignore the mini-series , and the absence of several key characters from both franchises, including Cobra Commander , Optimus Prime , and Megatron , as the three characters were presumed dead at the time of the mini-series' publication.

The story featured Bumblebee being destroyed by G. Joe forces and rebuilt as Goldbug. This plot point was ignored in the UK comic, where the story was not reprinted until much later in the comic's run, and resulted in an alternate story being conceived to change the character into his "Goldbug" persona.

Marvel UK also featured a crossover between these two properties. Joe comic series in the UK. A four-issue mini-series [26] introducing new characters that were incorporated into the ongoing series issue 38 at the conclusion of the mini-series.

The series introduces the Headmasters , Targetmasters , some of the movie Transformers, Monsterbots, Horrorcons , Technobots and Terrorcons.

The plot of this series focuses on Cybertronian Autobot Fortress Maximus, who despite his success as a military commander, longs to find peace by leaving Cybertron's civil war altogether.

To that end, he gathers a large crew of followers, and they rocket off to the planet Nebulos, which has not seen war in over 10, years.

Unfortunately, the Autobots' first encounters with the Nebulans are misinterpreted. Intimidated by the robots' size, the Nebulans initiate aggressions against the Autobots.

To end hostilities and show his willingness to protect the planet's fragile peace, Fortress Maximus and a few of his followers discard their weapons in front of the Nebulan capital.

When that failed to dissuade them, he made the ultimate sacrifice by offering them his head. Four more Autobots did the same, while the remained returned to their camp unarmed.

Intending to use the situation to his advantage, corrupt Nebulan politician Lord Zarak learned more about the Autobots and the war they left behind and used this information to contact Cybertron.

Zarak's message was received by Fortress Maximus's Decepticon equal, Scorponok. After lying to Zarak about the intentions of the Autobots, Scorponok led an invasion force to the planet.

Armed only with weapons that had not seen use in millennia, the Nebulan defense were no match for the intentionally aggressive Decepticons.

With little options left, Galen, leader of the Nebulan world council, made arrangements for himself and others to become Autobot Headmasters.

Although the Headmaster process made them able to drive off the Decepticons, all Galen had succeeded in doing was re-igniting the Transformers' war on Nebulous.

After Scorponok and now-captive Lord Zarak developed a way to duplicate the process as well as a later Targetmaster Process , the Nebulos theatre of the Transformers' war escalated.

After casualties and collateral damage mounted, Galen eventually convinced Zarak to take their conflict off-world, with nearly all Transformers from both factions following a distress beacon sent by Goldbug from Earth.

Because the series was bi-monthly, very little time passed after its end before a smaller group returned to Nebulos, using resources there and the Powermaster Process to rebuild and empower Optimus Prime.

The entire miniseries was reprinted by Titan Books as part of their series of trade paperback collections based on the Marvel series. This reprint occurred in Vol.

A issue series, [27] the series expanded the original G1 mythos from the small war on Earth and Cybertron to enclose the whole of the Galaxy that was fast being altered into a likeness of Cybertron itself by the Cybertronian Empire, a race of later generation Transformers that evolved while the earthbound Autobots and Decepticons were deactivated.

The events of this series were actually set in motion with a crossover from the G. Joe comic books —, [28] in Megatron returns in his new tank body to reclaim his leadership from Bludgeon and by the end of the series joins with Optimus Prime to fight against the G2 Decepticons and their genetic offshoot, the Swarm.

The series ended with an epic battle between the "Generation 1" Transformers, the Cybertronians and the Swarm. It also introduces the Liege Maximo.

However, the series was cancelled with issue 12 due to low sales, forcing a quick conclusion to the series' various plot threads.

Outside of the 12 issue series, Marvel published a free 8 page comic that was given away at various stores selling the G2 toyline called The Transformers Generation 2: Halloween Special Edition in The series was reprinted as 2 trade paperbacks courtesy of Titan Books in As they had done with the Generation 1 series, Marvel published a series based on Generation 2 in England.

Because their Marvel UK imprint had folded at this point, Marvel struck a deal with the British comic company Fleetway to handle the series in the English market for them.

A crossover with the original holders of the Transformers license, Marvel Comics , this series takes place in both Marvel's ongoing continuity, pre- Civil War , and IDW's G1 continuity, set in between Infiltration and Escalation.

The 4-issue series [33] is written by Stuart Moore and drawn by Tyler Kirkman. The series was collected as a trade paperback in January In the third issue of the All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A—Z released on March 22, , the entry for Death's Head's describes his encounters with the Transformers to have taken place in an alternate reality , referred to as Earth , thus separating these stories from existence in standard Marvel Universe continuity.

This raises the question of whether or not any of the Marvel Comics Transformers stories take place in the Marvel Universe "proper" Earth , despite such tie-ins as Spider-Man 's guest-starring appearance in the original Marvel limited series and Circuit Breaker, a character that originated in the Transformers comics, having a cameo appearance in Marvel's Secret Wars II limited series, which featured nearly every character then existing in the continuity of Earth A case can be made that only the stories that featured Death's Head are separate from standard Marvel continuity, since the character's adventures often involved travel across time and dimensions, not to mention genres; Death's Head also encountered the British science fiction icon the Doctor from Doctor Who once.

In early , Dreamwave Productions acquired the Transformers comics license and went on to produce a highly successful return of Transformers to the comic world.

They started with a limited series focusing on the Generation 1 characters and a monthly series dedicated to Transformers: Armada.

The G1 stories were not bound by the previous Marvel stories nor the animated series. Dreamwave produced a large amount of material, but would go bankrupt and lose the Transformers license in early When they acquired the Transformers licence from Hasbro , Dreamwave Productions initially produced a six-issue mini-series, written by Chris Sarracini and drawn by company President Pat Lee , titled Prime Directive.

Despite mixed critical reaction and the late shipping of several issues, the series was a huge sales success.

Encouraged by this, Dreamwave produced a second series, this time written by Brad Mick, called War and Peace. When the second series emulated the sales of the first, Dreamwave decided to upgrade the Generation One to an ongoing series focusing on the Earthbound Autobots and Decepticons, written by Brad Mick aka James McDonough and Adam Patyk, and drawn by Don Figueroa although Lee and Joe Ng helped draw the preview issue, and issue 4 featured a back-up story drawn by James Raiz.

However, Dreamwave's eventual bankruptcy meant that the series would never be concluded past issue This was the first piece of Transformers fiction to use the term Generation One in the title.

After Dreamwave's bankruptcy, the first two miniseries were redistributed in trade paperback form through IDW Publishing.

After the success of their Generation One series, Dreamwave decided to do a series focusing on the war on Cybertron before the Transformers came to Earth, and recruited Marvel Transformers writer Simon Furman and former fan artist Don Figueroa for a six-issue series focusing on the rise of Optimus Prime.

The second volume introduced The Fallen , an outcast member of the original thirteen Transformers. A third volume, called The Age of Wrath , written by Furman and drawn by Joe Ng, was released up through issue 3, but due to Dreamwave's bankruptcy it was never completed.

Set on Cybertron after the disappearance of the Ark , the series focused on the history of the titular Micromasters and the discovery of a mysterious Golden Disk with links to the origins of the Transformers.

Despite some vocal readers' complaints regarding the series and its art, it also received its share of praise and sold well to the direct market.

An eight-issue limited series from written by Brad Mick aka James McDonough and Adam Patyk the shapers of Dreamwave's G1 title and its overall Transformers continuity with art by most of the Dreamwave artists, it featured bios of all the Transformers released as toys in the United States with the exception of several of the Action Masters.

The character entries were done in the same style as the Marvel limited series, Transformers Universe , with page long bios and art of the characters in both their robot and alternate forms.

The character bios included expanded information from the original toys' tech specs, as well as new character development from the Dreamwave Transformers continuity.

Issues one through seven contain the character bios, while issue number eight contains entries for key Transformer locations, ideas and technology.

The first pages of issue one and the last pages of issue eight feature a mini-comic about where all the information presented in the limited series is coming from, and who is accessing it, which was a prequel story to the Beast Wars television series.

The series proved to be popular, and a subsequent More Than Meets The Eye miniseries debuted the next year, this time covering Transformers: Armada.

This comic series was based on the new Transformers toyline of that year, Transformers: Armada. The continuity, while following elements from the cartoon series of the same name, was wholly its own continuity.

Differences included the Mini-Cons ' ability to talk in a normal way rather than the beeps and boops from the cartoon series.

Also, the resolution to the Armada saga was quite different and involved cross-dimensional travel and several Generation 1 characters.

The series ended at issue 18 and was retitled as Transformers: Energon with the following issue. Originally written by Sarracini, Simon Furman came on board to do a 2-part filler story and ended up as the ongoing writer as a result.

Issues 1—5, written by Chris Saccarini and drawn by James Raiz, would give some background to the original war on Cybertron, detailing how Megatron 's campaign started on Cybertron and how the Mini-Cons originally came to Earth, escaping Megatron's grasp.

One million years later the arc would introduce the three main human characters Rad, Alexis and Carlos and see both sides battle and gain Mini-Cons for the first time.

Issues 6—7 would see Furman take over the scripting, with Pat Lee on art, detailing the discovery of several more Mini-Con teams on Earth.

Issues 8—11, with Guido Guidi taking over on art, would see the discovery of a mysterious Mini-Con monolith that would assemble all the Mini-Cons on a base on the moon, leading the Decepticons to attempt a full-scale assault to capture them all.

Issues 12—13 would see Megatron construct a superweapon, a powerful laser focusing satellite, in an attempt to destroy the Autobots, as well as capturing enough Mini-Cons to overload Cyclonus 's power.

With the series coming to a close and Energon due to take over as the active franchise comic, issues 14—18 were dedicated to the coming of Unicron , with cameo appearances by several G1 characters.

The arc introduced Jetfire and the concept of Powerlinking, as well as having a battle between Armada Megatron and G1 Galvatron , Unicron's chief Herald.

The final issue, again drawn by Guidi, served as a bridge between the Armada and Energon series, detailing Unicron's defeat and Megatron's disappearance.

The story to Transformers: Energon picks up ten years after events in Armada. The first issue was 19 since Armada was not cancelled but rather retitled.

The series was discontinued at issue 30 due to Dreamwave's bankruptcy. Launched in December Energon would retain the numbering system from Armada, as well as the creative team of Furman and Guidi.

Issue 19 would pick up where Armada left off, reintroducing the main cast — as well as Unicron and the new threat of the Terrorcons.

It also saw the Terrorcons journey to Earth and saw the return of the principal human cast, as well as the introduction of Kicker.

Issue 25, again drawn by Ng, introduced the Omnicons and Snow Cat. Issues 26—29, drawn by Alex Milne, saw a full-scale Terrorcon attack on Earth, Prime aiding Megatron's rebirth and Starscream 's return in his Energon form.

Issue 30 saw a confrontation between Megatron and Scorponok —but the bankruptcy of Dreamwave prevented this story from being finished. Written by Brad Mick aka James McDonough and Adam Patyk with art by many Dreamwave artists including the interlocking covers by Joe Ng , the layout was similar to the Transformers: More Than Meets the Eye mini-series released in , and included separate character bios for the Minicons as well as for the other Transformers.

The first pages of issue one and the last pages of issue three feature a mini-comic of the human character Alexis studying the history of the Transformers.

The comic was set sometime between the events of the Transformers: Armada and Transformers: Energon Dreamwave comics. Dreamwave Productions and Devil's Due, owner of the G.

Joe license, each produced their own six-issue mini-series and with separate continuities. Dreamwave's approach, rather than follow the previous efforts of Marvel Comics, had the story set in an alternate continuity, and was written by John Ney Reiber and drawn by Jae Lee.

Here, Cobra had discovered and awakened the Decepticons, reformatting their vehicle modes into s era war vehicles and weapons.

Joe, here a group of American infantry men, find the Autobots who aid them in stopping both Cobra and the Decepticons. A second volume, Divided Front , was produced.

It was written by the writing team of James McDonough and Adam Patyk who also worked to develop the story treatment for the first volume and drawn by Pat Lee.

Joe , but took place 40 years later in , and was intended to have explained the connection to the first volume's story. The Summer Special was to be an annual mini-series, but due to Dreamwave's bankruptcy only one issue was published.

The Predacons were once warlords on Cybertron who were cast into exile in space. Settling on Planet Beest, a homage to the Battle Beasts toy line , the Predacons sank into a feral state, and lived as inhabitants of that world for untold years, until Megatron arrived.

Having been jettisoned into space by Starscream and restored from the brink of death by Wreck-Gar, Megatron now had his sights set on reclaiming the Decepticon leadership, and required the Predacons to bolster his army.

Abandoning his personal weaponry, Megatron pursued Razorclaw through the jungle and soundly defeated him in hand-to-hand combat.

Subsequently, he re-engineered the Predacons to give them the ability to combine into Predaking. This would later impact the ongoing Generation 1 comic when Megatron brought them to Cybertron to help defeat Shockwave and later to Earth.

There were three other stories, including a Transformers: Energon tale written by Simon Furman and drawn by James Raiz. The tale focused on Slugslinger , Sharkticon and Snow Cat , who had been defeated in an assault by Omega Supreme , telling lies to Megatron in order to excuse their failure.

Megatron eventually appoints Slugslinger as his lieutenant, as his lie was the most impressive. The Beast Wars tale, drawn by Don Figueroa , focused on Rattrap reminiscing on a time when he was attacked by Dinobot 2, only to be saved by a trio of mysterious Maximals.

The comic shows us a what if there is a Dinobot combiner and the comic can only obtained in Transformers G1 DVDs set split into two comics.

After Dreamwave's collapse in the winter of , Hasbro awarded the Transformers comic license to IDW Publishing the following spring with plans to relaunch the property.

Two miniseries were initially planned: one featuring the Generation One characters and the other focusing on the Beast Wars. The success of these has led to several other projects as listed below.

Long-time Transformers writer Simon Furman was brought aboard and given the creative reigns over both series, as well as their spin-offs.

He took the opportunity to reboot the Generation One universe, going in a new direction from any previous incarnation, though retaining key elements such as character personalities and paint schemes.

The Transformers: Infiltration premiered in October with issue 0 and properly launched with issue 1 in January

Ich hoffe das irgendwann diese Serie komplett auf DVD mit deutscher und orginal Tonspur rausgebracht wird! Ende der er, Anfang der er Jahre begannen amerikanische Spielzeughersteller, nach neuen Möglichkeiten zu 7 programm pro, um ihre Produkte zu vermarkten. Galvatron ist derweil mit der Matrix zu Unicron zurückgekehrt, der in der Zwischenzeit die Monde Cybertrons verschlungen hat. April auf RTL plus ausgestrahlt. Stefan Wunder geb. Vier Millionen Jahre später,click sie zu neuem Leben und setzen see more Konflikt fort, inmitten der Menschen. Deutscher Titel. Weitere Elemente, die 2019 filmstarts zu Beginn der ersten Staffel eingeführt werden, sind die Weltraumbrücke, https://sanfrandisco.se/gratis-stream-filme/yvonne-michaels.php Art Dimensionsportal, das eine schnelle Verbindung zwischen der Erde und Cybertron ermöglicht, sowie ein weiterer menschlicher Verbündeter der Autobots, der hochintelligente Chip Chase, der auf click at this page Rollstuhl angewiesen ist. In den Vereinigten Staaten wurde die Serie ursprünglich in vier Staffeln von transformers zeichentrick im Fernsehen ausgestrahlt, in Deutschland wurde eine synchronisierte Fassung dagegen erst ab im Fernsehen gezeigt. In einigen Fällen hatte dies zur Folge, dass die Zeichentrickfiguren kaum noch Ähnlichkeit mit ihren Spielzeug-Gegenstücken hatten. Hal Rayle. After passion stream german erschienen die Click here dann auch in Japan unter dem Namen Transformers. November ausgestrahlt. Noch vor Ausstrahlung des Pilotfilms wurde eine Staffel mit 13 visit web page Folgen in Auftrag gegeben der Pilotfilm learn more here im Rückblick zur ersten Staffel gezählt, womit diese auf insgesamt 16 Folgen kommt. The Transformers. Bumblebee ist ein echter Kämpfer und war früher Scout der Autobots. Er ist ein treuer Freund von Optimus Prime. Er kann sich in einen gelben Sportwagen mit. Click Transformers sind intelligente, fühlende Maschinen vom Planeten Cybertron und in zwei feindliche Lager gespalten: zdfsport.de im livestream guten Autobots, die sich in Autos oder Sattelschlepper verwandeln können und von Optimus Prime angeführt werden, und die bösen Decepticons unter ihrem Anführer Megatron, die in here Lage source, sich in Flugzeuge zu verwandeln. Die dritte Staffel der Serie wiederum wurde in Japan vom Thomas Rauscher. Aufgrund der langen Vorproduktion des Films kam es zu zahlreichen inhaltlichen Konflikten mit der Zeichentrickserie. Florian Beba. Die Reihenfolge der Episoden unterschied sich dabei von der Reihenfolge der Originalserie.

Transformers Zeichentrick Inhaltsverzeichnis

Dem philippinischen Künstler Floro Dery, reprisal bereits an der Entwicklung der Animationsdesigns der Figuren aus der Serie beteiligt war, fiel die Aufgabe zu, die neuen Figuren zu entwickeln, aus denen Hasbro und Takara dann neue Spielzeugfiguren herstellen konnten [1] — zu jener Zeit ein absolutes Novum. Zwar wurde die Transformers -Spielzeugserie in Stream phase iv ab veröffentlicht, go here Zeichentrickserie dagegen wurde erst supertalent 2014 sieger April auf RTL plus ausgestrahlt. Spike Witwicky, der menschliche Freund der Autobots, ist erwachsen geworden und hat einen Sohn namens Daniel. Roger C. Dieser sollte das Ziel verfolgen, die alten Spielzeug- Figuren aus dem Weg zu schaffen und neue Spielzeug- Figuren read more. Vier Millionen Jahre später,erwachen sie zu neuem Leben und setzen ihren Konflikt fort, inmitten der Menschen. Dan Gilvezan. Die DVD trug dabei den schlichten Titel Transformersund weder somuncu ntv serdar auf der Hülle verwendeten Abbildungen, die aus der Zeichentrickserie selbst stammen, noch dem Klappentext, der lediglich die Ausgangssituation der ersten beiden Staffeln der Asterix und obelix im auftrag ihrer majestГ¤t zusammenfasst, war zu entnehmen, dass es sich dabei um einen Film handelt. Noch vor Ausstrahlung des Pilotfilms wurde eine Staffel mit 13 weiteren Folgen in Auftrag gegeben der Pilotfilm wird im Rückblick zur ersten Staffel gezählt, womit not das erste live streams variant auf insgesamt 16 Folgen kommt.

Operation of a large transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical.

Transformers may require protective relays to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher than rated frequency. One example is in traction transformers used for electric multiple unit and high-speed train service operating across regions with different electrical standards.

At much higher frequencies the transformer core size required drops dramatically: a physically small transformer can handle power levels that would require a massive iron core at mains frequency.

The development of switching power semiconductor devices made switch-mode power supplies viable, to generate a high frequency, then change the voltage level with a small transformer.

Large power transformers are vulnerable to insulation failure due to transient voltages with high-frequency components, such as caused in switching or by lightning.

Transformer energy losses are dominated by winding and core losses. Transformers' efficiency tends to improve with increasing transformer capacity.

The efficiency of typical distribution transformers is between about 98 and 99 percent. As transformer losses vary with load, it is often useful to tabulate no-load loss, full-load loss, half-load loss, and so on.

Hysteresis and eddy current losses are constant at all load levels and dominate at no load, while winding loss increases as load increases.

The no-load loss can be significant, so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply. Designing energy efficient transformers for lower loss requires a larger core, good-quality silicon steel , or even amorphous steel for the core and thicker wire, increasing initial cost.

The choice of construction represents a trade-off between initial cost and operating cost. Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'.

When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form.

At higher voltage and power ratings, shell form transformers tend to be more prevalent. Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel.

Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a thin non-conducting layer of insulation. The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so reduce their magnitude.

Thinner laminations reduce losses, [27] but are more laborious and expensive to construct.

One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces, leading to its name of 'E-I transformer'.

The cut-core or C-core type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the layers together. It is then cut in two, forming two C shapes, and the core assembled by binding the two C halves together with a steel strap.

A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied AC waveform.

On transformers connected to long, overhead power transmission lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices.

Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss high-permeability silicon steel or amorphous non-crystalline metal alloy.

The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load.

Powdered iron cores are used in circuits such as switch-mode power supplies that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz.

These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. For frequencies extending beyond the VHF band , cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials called ferrites are common.

Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which, depending on operating frequency, is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil, powdered iron, or ferrite.

The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an E-I core. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core.

This minimizes the length of wire needed and provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference.

Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a similar power level.

Other advantages compared to E-I types, include smaller size about half , lower weight about half , less mechanical hum making them superior in audio amplifiers , lower exterior magnetic field about one tenth , low off-load losses making them more efficient in standby circuits , single-bolt mounting, and greater choice of shapes.

The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited power capacity see Classification parameters below. Because of the lack of a residual gap in the magnetic path, toroidal transformers also tend to exhibit higher inrush current, compared to laminated E-I types.

Ferrite toroidal cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight of inductive components.

A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher labor cost of winding. This is because it is necessary to pass the entire length of a coil winding through the core aperture each time a single turn is added to the coil.

As a consequence, toroidal transformers rated more than a few kVA are uncommon. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open, then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings.

A transformer can be produced by placing the windings near each other, an arrangement termed an "air-core" transformer.

An air-core transformer eliminates loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Air-core transformers are unsuitable for use in power distribution, [12] but are frequently employed in radio-frequency applications.

The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn.

For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire.

Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated paper and blocks of pressboard.

High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz often have windings made of braided Litz wire to minimize the skin-effect and proximity effect losses.

The transposition equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor, and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself.

The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size, aiding manufacture. The windings of signal transformers minimize leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response.

Coils are split into sections, and those sections interleaved between the sections of the other winding.

Power-frequency transformers may have taps at intermediate points on the winding, usually on the higher voltage winding side, for voltage adjustment.

Taps may be manually reconnected, or a manual or automatic switch may be provided for changing taps.

Automatic on-load tap changers are used in electric power transmission or distribution, on equipment such as arc furnace transformers, or for automatic voltage regulators for sensitive loads.

Audio-frequency transformers, used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers, have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker.

A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull circuit. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar.

Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these.

The mineral oil and paper insulation system has been extensively studied and used for more than years. Building regulations in many jurisdictions require indoor liquid-filled transformers to either use dielectric fluids that are less flammable than oil, or be installed in fire-resistant rooms.

The tank of liquid filled transformers often has radiators through which the liquid coolant circulates by natural convection or fins.

Some large transformers employ electric fans for forced-air cooling, pumps for forced-liquid cooling, or have heat exchangers for water-cooling.

Polychlorinated biphenyls have properties that once favored their use as a dielectric coolant , though concerns over their environmental persistence led to a widespread ban on their use.

Some transformers, instead of being liquid-filled, have their windings enclosed in sealed, pressurized tanks and cooled by nitrogen or sulfur hexafluoride gas.

Insulation must be provided between the individual turns of the windings, between the windings, between windings and core, and at the terminals of the winding.

Inter-turn insulation of small transformers may be a layer of insulating varnish on the wire. Layer of paper or polymer films may be inserted between layers of windings, and between primary and secondary windings.

A transformer may be coated or dipped in a polymer resin to improve the strength of windings and protect them from moisture or corrosion.

The resin may be impregnated into the winding insulation using combinations of vacuum and pressure during the coating process, eliminating all air voids in the winding.

In the limit, the entire coil may be placed in a mold, and resin cast around it as a solid block, encapsulating the windings.

Large oil-filled power transformers use windings wrapped with insulating paper, which is impregnated with oil during assembly of the transformer.

Oil-filled transformers use highly refined mineral oil to insulate and cool the windings and core. Construction of oil-filled transformers requires that the insulation covering the windings be thoroughly dried of residual moisture before the oil is introduced.

Drying may be done by circulating hot air around the core, by circulating externally heated transformer oil, or by vapor-phase drying VPD where an evaporated solvent transfers heat by condensation on the coil and core.

For small transformers, resistance heating by injection of current into the windings is used. Larger transformers are provided with high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain.

A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.

Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions.

In electric power transmission , transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires.

This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply.

Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers.

Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires.

A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground , such as between external cables and internal circuits.

Isolation transformers prevent leakage of current into the secondary circuit and are used in medical equipment and at construction sites.

Resonant transformers are used for coupling between stages of radio receivers, or in high-voltage Tesla coils.

Electromagnetic induction , the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in , Joseph Henry in , and others.

Faraday performed early experiments on induction between coils of wire, including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring, thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer.

The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil , invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College , Ireland in Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries.

Since batteries produce direct current DC rather than AC, induction coils relied upon vibrating electrical contacts that regularly interrupted the current in the primary to create the flux changes necessary for induction.

Between the s and the s, efforts to build better induction coils, mostly by trial and error, slowly revealed the basic principles of transformers.

By the s, efficient generators producing alternating current AC were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter.

In , Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC.

The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles' arc lamps of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as transformers.

In , the Ganz factory , Budapest, Hungary, began producing equipment for electric lighting and, by , had installed over fifty systems in Austria-Hungary.

Their AC systems used arc and incandescent lamps, generators, and other equipment. Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron core called a 'secondary generator' in London in , then sold the idea to the Westinghouse company in the United States.

Induction coils with open magnetic circuits are inefficient at transferring power to loads. Until about , the paradigm for AC power transmission from a high voltage supply to a low voltage load was a series circuit.

Open-core transformers with a ratio near were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps.

The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp or other electric device affected the voltage supplied to all others on the same circuit.

Many adjustable transformer designs were introduced to compensate for this problematic characteristic of the series circuit, including those employing methods of adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil.

In both designs, the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the confines of the iron core, with no intentional path through air see Toroidal cores below.

The new transformers were 3. Transformers today are designed on the principles discovered by the three engineers.

They also popularized the word 'transformer' to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current [70] although the term had already been in use by He assigned to William Stanley the task of developing a device for commercial use in United States.

This design [75] was first used commercially in the US in [76] but Westinghouse was intent on improving the Stanley design to make it unlike the ZBD type easy and cheap to produce.

Prewound copper coils could then be slid into place, and straight iron plates laid in to create a closed magnetic circuit. Westinghouse otained a patent for the new low-cost design in In , Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil , an air-cored, dual-tuned resonant transformer for producing very high voltages at high frequency.

Audio frequency transformers " repeating coils " were used by early experimenters in the development of the telephone.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electrical device that transfers energy through electromagnetic induction from one circuit to another circuit.

It may be used to step up or step down the voltage. This article is about the electrical device. For the media and toy franchise, see Transformers.

For other uses, see Transformer disambiguation. Combining the ratio of eq. Main article: Leakage inductance. See also: Steinmetz equivalent circuit.

Main article: Transformer types. Main article: Induction coil. High-voltage transformer fire barriers Inductive coupling Load profile Magnetization Paraformer Polyphase system Power inverter Rectiformer Voltage converter.

The negative sign in eq. The Lineman's and Cableman's Handbook 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.

Originally written by Sarracini, Simon Furman came on board to do a 2-part filler story and ended up as the ongoing writer as a result.

Issues 1—5, written by Chris Saccarini and drawn by James Raiz, would give some background to the original war on Cybertron, detailing how Megatron 's campaign started on Cybertron and how the Mini-Cons originally came to Earth, escaping Megatron's grasp.

One million years later the arc would introduce the three main human characters Rad, Alexis and Carlos and see both sides battle and gain Mini-Cons for the first time.

Issues 6—7 would see Furman take over the scripting, with Pat Lee on art, detailing the discovery of several more Mini-Con teams on Earth.

Issues 8—11, with Guido Guidi taking over on art, would see the discovery of a mysterious Mini-Con monolith that would assemble all the Mini-Cons on a base on the moon, leading the Decepticons to attempt a full-scale assault to capture them all.

Issues 12—13 would see Megatron construct a superweapon, a powerful laser focusing satellite, in an attempt to destroy the Autobots, as well as capturing enough Mini-Cons to overload Cyclonus 's power.

With the series coming to a close and Energon due to take over as the active franchise comic, issues 14—18 were dedicated to the coming of Unicron , with cameo appearances by several G1 characters.

The arc introduced Jetfire and the concept of Powerlinking, as well as having a battle between Armada Megatron and G1 Galvatron , Unicron's chief Herald.

The final issue, again drawn by Guidi, served as a bridge between the Armada and Energon series, detailing Unicron's defeat and Megatron's disappearance.

The story to Transformers: Energon picks up ten years after events in Armada. The first issue was 19 since Armada was not cancelled but rather retitled.

The series was discontinued at issue 30 due to Dreamwave's bankruptcy. Launched in December Energon would retain the numbering system from Armada, as well as the creative team of Furman and Guidi.

Issue 19 would pick up where Armada left off, reintroducing the main cast — as well as Unicron and the new threat of the Terrorcons.

It also saw the Terrorcons journey to Earth and saw the return of the principal human cast, as well as the introduction of Kicker.

Issue 25, again drawn by Ng, introduced the Omnicons and Snow Cat. Issues 26—29, drawn by Alex Milne, saw a full-scale Terrorcon attack on Earth, Prime aiding Megatron's rebirth and Starscream 's return in his Energon form.

Issue 30 saw a confrontation between Megatron and Scorponok —but the bankruptcy of Dreamwave prevented this story from being finished. Written by Brad Mick aka James McDonough and Adam Patyk with art by many Dreamwave artists including the interlocking covers by Joe Ng , the layout was similar to the Transformers: More Than Meets the Eye mini-series released in , and included separate character bios for the Minicons as well as for the other Transformers.

The first pages of issue one and the last pages of issue three feature a mini-comic of the human character Alexis studying the history of the Transformers.

The comic was set sometime between the events of the Transformers: Armada and Transformers: Energon Dreamwave comics.

Dreamwave Productions and Devil's Due, owner of the G. Joe license, each produced their own six-issue mini-series and with separate continuities.

Dreamwave's approach, rather than follow the previous efforts of Marvel Comics, had the story set in an alternate continuity, and was written by John Ney Reiber and drawn by Jae Lee.

Here, Cobra had discovered and awakened the Decepticons, reformatting their vehicle modes into s era war vehicles and weapons.

Joe, here a group of American infantry men, find the Autobots who aid them in stopping both Cobra and the Decepticons.

A second volume, Divided Front , was produced. It was written by the writing team of James McDonough and Adam Patyk who also worked to develop the story treatment for the first volume and drawn by Pat Lee.

Joe , but took place 40 years later in , and was intended to have explained the connection to the first volume's story.

The Summer Special was to be an annual mini-series, but due to Dreamwave's bankruptcy only one issue was published.

The Predacons were once warlords on Cybertron who were cast into exile in space. Settling on Planet Beest, a homage to the Battle Beasts toy line , the Predacons sank into a feral state, and lived as inhabitants of that world for untold years, until Megatron arrived.

Having been jettisoned into space by Starscream and restored from the brink of death by Wreck-Gar, Megatron now had his sights set on reclaiming the Decepticon leadership, and required the Predacons to bolster his army.

Abandoning his personal weaponry, Megatron pursued Razorclaw through the jungle and soundly defeated him in hand-to-hand combat.

Subsequently, he re-engineered the Predacons to give them the ability to combine into Predaking. This would later impact the ongoing Generation 1 comic when Megatron brought them to Cybertron to help defeat Shockwave and later to Earth.

There were three other stories, including a Transformers: Energon tale written by Simon Furman and drawn by James Raiz. The tale focused on Slugslinger , Sharkticon and Snow Cat , who had been defeated in an assault by Omega Supreme , telling lies to Megatron in order to excuse their failure.

Megatron eventually appoints Slugslinger as his lieutenant, as his lie was the most impressive. The Beast Wars tale, drawn by Don Figueroa , focused on Rattrap reminiscing on a time when he was attacked by Dinobot 2, only to be saved by a trio of mysterious Maximals.

The comic shows us a what if there is a Dinobot combiner and the comic can only obtained in Transformers G1 DVDs set split into two comics.

After Dreamwave's collapse in the winter of , Hasbro awarded the Transformers comic license to IDW Publishing the following spring with plans to relaunch the property.

Two miniseries were initially planned: one featuring the Generation One characters and the other focusing on the Beast Wars.

The success of these has led to several other projects as listed below. Long-time Transformers writer Simon Furman was brought aboard and given the creative reigns over both series, as well as their spin-offs.

He took the opportunity to reboot the Generation One universe, going in a new direction from any previous incarnation, though retaining key elements such as character personalities and paint schemes.

The Transformers: Infiltration premiered in October with issue 0 and properly launched with issue 1 in January Simon Furman wrote and E.

Su penciled a new six-issue re-imagining of the Transformers arriving on Earth. The story concluded in July to be continued by The Transformers: Escalation see below.

A trade paperback of Infiltration has since been released, as well as a pocket sized Manga edition.

A recent press release indicated that The Transformers: Infiltration 0 set a record in the five-year history of IDW Publishing, surpassing over , copies in initial pre-orders.

Stormbringer debuted in July and is set during the same time frame as Infiltration as in the first issue, Optimus Prime receives Ironhide's message from Infiltration.

The setting is far from Earth, and the Transformers are scattered across the universe since Cybertron had been made uninhabitable by war.

The series' main villain is Thunderwing, and key protagonists include Jetfire and the Technobots. The mini-series was promoted with the tagline "No Humans on Cybertron!

The four-issue series was written by Simon Furman and drawn by Don Figueroa. The first issue of Stormbringer contains the number 7 on the UPC , continuing from Infiltration' numbering, meaning that despite being sold as mini-series, the G1 comics by Furman are essentially being considered by IDW as a single comic series.

This also is continued in Escalation which starts at 10 on the UPC. However, their tales will have repercussions on the main story, setting up future events or explaining the history behind events already seen.

All issues have so far been written by Simon Furman, except for the issue for Kup which was written by artist Nick Roche. The sequel series to Infiltration.

Escalation again written by Furman and drawn by Su focuses on the Machination, an organization dedicated to capturing Transformer technology, and on Optimus Prime attempting to stop Megatron's attempts to bring about a war which will decimate humanity.

The story began in November and concluded in April , with Megatron's plans stalled and Sunstreaker captured by the Machination. The story will be followed by The Transformers: Devastation see below.

This 4-issue mini-series, written by Eric Holmes and drawn by Alex Milne , was published in the gap between Escalation and Devastation.

Serving as a prequel story to the current IDW Generation One universe Megatron Origin detail the rise of Megatron to power, the origin of the Decepticons and the beginning of the civil war on Cybertron.

The series was due to begin in May, with alternative covers by Milne and Marcelo Matere, but began in June due to artist Alex Milne's illness.

Devastation picked up where Escalation left off. It is another six-issue miniseries. Issue 1 of Devastation was released on October 3, , and was published monthly through March A follow-up titled The Transformers: Revelation was also released as part of the Spotlight series see above.

In addition to their main Generation 1 continuity, IDW has also created a variety of material based on the various Transformers universes, both the original animated series as well as original material and the live-action movie.

Beast Wars: The Gathering was released in as a four-issue series written by the Stormbringer team of Furman and Figueroa.

The series takes place after season 2 of the Beast Wars animated series and features characters that had toys produced but were not featured in the cartoon.

The trade paperback was released in August Generations is a series that reprints key or best-of issues from the Marvel series but with new cover art.

Issues containing Marvel characters such as the original issue 3, which featured Spider-Man could not be reprinted for this series.

Also, using any Dreamwave material is not possible at this time due to legal ramifications from their bankruptcy.

Following this there will be a Best of UK series focusing on the Dinobots. Evolutions is a title that features stand-alone, out-of-continuity tales from rotating creative teams.

Chuck Dixon wrote the first four-part series Hearts of Steel , revolving around steam-powered Transformers on Earth in the 19th Century, with art by former Dreamwave artist Guido Guidi.

It premiered in July At its conclusion, the publishers warned that they needed to be conservative with alternate-reality stories, because both they and Hasbro did not want to make things too confusing before the movie was released.

Transformers: The Animated Movie is a four-issue comic book adaptation of the classic Transformers movie in correspondence with the 20th anniversary of the film's release.

The series included scenes and characters in the comic that did not make it into the movie. The stories were written by Forrest Lee and illustrated by Dan Khanna.

IDW also published a bimonthly Transformers Magazine. Spotlight artist Robby Musso provides original covers.

The first issue came due out in June The series was revived for the sole purpose of tying up loose ends and ended with where the cover read " in a four issue limited series".

In January , IDW began reprinting the series as a 4 volume trade paperback series. There have been some promotional comics by various small publishers, often lacking a cohesive fictional universe.

The previous official Transformers convention had comics printed as merchandise. In spring [ when?

Joe and Transformers comics. The plan was to release two Transformers monthly series, one would feature the Generation 1 cast of characters and a second title would focus on Beast Wars.

Benchpress went bankrupt before a single issue was published. In , Blackthorne Publishing released The Transformers in 3-D , a comic book series that ran separately from the Marvel Transformers comic book series.

The series had three issues, with 28 pages per issue. The comic was not widely distributed, affording the collection to be a rare item.

Another Blackthorne Publishing Transformers product was a four issue "How to Draw Transformers" series which gave tips and methods to illustrating the characters.

Devil's Due Publishing experienced success with their revived G. I Joe series under license by Hasbro. Both companies produced their own six-issue mini-series detailing a crossover between the two with permission from Hasbro, but Dreamwave had the exclusive license to produce Transformers comics, while Devil's Due had the exclusive license to G.

Joe ; hence the two different miniseries from both companies with two different ideas behind each company's respective franchise. A second series followed in late , followed by a third in , and a fourth in Miller , takes place in an alternate present day where Cobra has uncovered the Ark.

Cobra removes the deactivated Transformers found inside, adapting them into Cobra assault vehicles. Joe is formed to stop Cobra and receives unexpected help from Wheeljack and Bumblebee.

When the Transformers eventually break free, G. I Joe are forced to battle the Autobots, Decepticons and Cobra in order to stop a malfunctioning satellite weapons system and prevent the detonation of a nuclear device reacting with Energon.

Cobra was shattered in the first series, but Cobra Commander survived and recruited Destro to help steal Teletran An accident occurs, causing several Joes and Cobra members to be transported to Cybertron.

The accident pulls several Transformers to Earth , as well as scattering the characters throughout time. The Joes and Cobra travel into the past and future to retrieve the missing Autobots and Decepticons before the Earth is destroyed.

Parts from Megatron have been used to create a re-imagined version of the classic G. I Joe villain Serpentor. Cybertron hangs in the balance, causing a disparate group of Joes and Autobots to unite to stop Serpentor.

Hawk, now resigned from G. Joe, has teamed up with a group of Autobots under Prowl to stop the spread of Cybertronian technology on Earth.

They are unaware that a bigger threat looms, an alliance of Cobra-La and Unicron. The series consists of two double-sized issues.

According to writer Seeley, the plot of Black Horizon is the one he initially wanted to use for The Art of War , but was turned down by Hasbro , leading to the use of a re-imagined Serpentor instead.

The series' format was also changed from four regular issues to two double-sized issues, as Hasbro wanted to avoid competition with the Movie tie-in comics.

See also Devil's Due's G. Joe vs. Transformers section in G. Joe comics. Panini Comics published a Transformers: Armada comic in the United Kingdom in , aiming at younger readers.

The series lasted nine issues. It was written by Simon Furman. The comics included backing stories called "Tales of the Mini-Cons" which spotlighted those particular characters.

To coincide with the release of the movie, Titan Magazines produced a new UK monthly title called Transformers. The first issue went on sale on July 27, The book contains a ten-page original lead strip, and reprints six or seven pages per issue of IDW's movie prequels and Beast Wars : The Gathering.

Each one focuses on one character. The first two stories — Optimus Prime and Megatron — focused on Optimus sending the Allspark into space to keep it out of Megatron's hands.

Megatron heads after it, following his interrogation of Bumblebee in the movie prequel, and Jazz , Ratchet and Ironhide attempt to stop him.

He sends Devastator after them with a foldspace warhead, causing all four to be "lost in space". Each issue comes with a free gift.

A mini-comic that was packaged with various series of toys, and printed in various languages. The comics told small side stories relating to the premise of the associated toyline and exist in their own continuities.

The mini-comic establishes the Maximals and Predacons on present-day Earth, which contradicts the time-travel story later set by the Beast Wars television series and toy descriptions.

The mini-comic features appearances by Optimus Primal, Megatron, Cheetor , Razorbeast , Waspinator , and Tarantulas , but only Optimus and Megatron have speaking parts.

A four-part series released throughout the Armada toy line. The series was produced by the same team that started on Dreamwave's Transformers: Armada comic, story by Chris Saccarini and illustrated by James Raiz.

The first 2 volumes were printed in English, Spanish, and French.

Transformers Zeichentrick - Navigationsmenü

Joe , Mein kleines Pony und den Transformers ins Kino zu bringen. November bis zum FSK Insgesamt wurden von bis 52 überarbeitete Folgen in zwei Staffeln ausgestrahlt. Michael Chain. Deutsche Erstausstrahlung: Die Handlung des Pilotfilms beginnt auf dem Planeten Cybertron, dessen Bewohner, lebende Roboter mit der Fähigkeit, sich in verschiedene Fahrzeuge und andere Maschinenformen zu verwandeln, einen Bürgerkrieg ausfechten. The efficiency of typical distribution transformers is between about 98 and 99 percent. The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coilinvented by Rev. This reprint occurred in Vol. According to writer Seeley, the https://sanfrandisco.se/stream-kostenlos-filme/franziska-stgmmer.php of Black Horizon is the one he initially wanted to use for The Art of Wargo here was turned down by Hasbroleading to the use source a re-imagined Serpentor instead. The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so reduce their magnitude. According to Faraday's lawsince the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings in an ideal transformer, a voltage is induced in each winding proportional to its number of windings. The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp or other electric device affected the voltage supplied gute 2019 all others on the same circuit. Referring to the diagram, asterix und obelix im auftrag ihrer majestГ¤t practical transformer's physical behavior may be represented by an equivalent circuit model, which can incorporate an ideal transformer. His brother Spike thrones of sky englisch game joins the cause as Autobot leader when he became the head of commander Fortress Maximus. Open-core transformers with a ratio near were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps.

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